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The International Veterinary Vaccinology Network (IVVN) Meeting 2017 will take place at the Ole Sereni Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya on the 30-31 October 2017. The meeting aims to: bring together UK and low-and-middle income country partners to form collaborations; introduce other networks that IVVN members should be aware of and bring together academic with industrial and other non-academic partners. The meeting will be composed of 4 themes: Vaccines for Zoonotic Diseases, Veterinary Vaccine Production in Africa, Synthetic Biology in Vaccine Development and Livestock Vaccines Here & Now. The programme for the meeting is:
Welcome & Introduction Dr Vish Nene (ILRI) & Dr Bryan Charleston (The Pirbright Institute)
The International Veterinary Vaccinology Network Dr Tim Connelley (The Roslin Institute)
Theme 1: Vaccines for Zoonotic Diseases
Chair: Prof Fiona Tomley
Unravelling the pathogenesis of visceral leishmaniasis: a one-health, interdisciplinary research agendaProf Paul Kaye (The University of York)
Rift Valley Fever Dr George Warimwe (KEMRI – Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kenya)
Brucellosis and the BactiVac Network Dr John McGiven (Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA))
RSV Dr Patrick Munywoki (KEMRI – Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kenya)
Vaccine needs for zoonotic diseases in humans and animals Dr Baptiste Dungu (MCI Sante Animale)
Theme 2: Veterinary Vaccine Production in Africa
Chair: Prof Brian Perry
The current economic burdens of livestock infectious diseases in tropical regions/LMICs/Africa Prof Jonathon Rushton (University of Liverpool)
Veterinary vaccine production in Africa – capacity and limitations AU PANVAC
Kenya Veterinary Vaccines Production Institute (KEVEVAPI) Dr Jane Wachira (KEVEVAPI)
Botswana Vaccine Institute (BVI) Dr Matlho (Botswana Vaccine Institute)
Day 2 – 31st October 2017
Theme 3: Synthetic Biology in Vaccine Development
Chair: Dr Pip Beard
Development of synthetic self-replicating mRNA platforms for vaccines and therapeutics
Dr Nathanial Wang (Synthetic Genomics Institute)
SpyTag – Vaccine Delivery
Prof Sumi Biswas (The Jenner Institute)
VLP for delivery of vaccines for East Coast Fever
Dr Anna Lacasta-Marin (ILRI)
Theme 4: Livestock Vaccines Here & Now
Chair: Prof Sandra Adams
The Alliance for Accelerating Excellence in Science in Africa (AESA) – facilitating capacity development Dr Tom Kariuki (AESA)
Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund
The efforts to eradicate peste des petits ruminants (PPR) Dr Bouna Diop (FAO)
Brucellosis Vaccine Prize Prof Brian Perry (Afrique One Aspire)
Livestock vaccination as a driver to achieve the Sustainability Development Goals Prof Guy Palmer (Washington State University)
Concluding comments Dr George Warimwe (KEMRI – Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kenya)
Nanoparticle (NP) technology has been shown to enhance immune activation by producing higher antibody titers and protection. Although specific mechanisms between NPs and biological membranes are still under investigation, physical parameters such as particle size and shape, as well as biological tissue distribution including mucociliary clearance influence the protection and delivery of antigens to the site of action and uptake by target cells. For respiratory delivery, various biomaterials such as mucoadhesive polymers, lipids, and polysaccharides have shown enhanced antibody production or protection in comparison to antigen alone. This review presents promising NPs administered via the nasal or pulmonary routes for veterinary applications specifically focusing on livestock animals including poultry.
Dr Adrian Muwonge and Professor Mark Bronsvoort from The Roslin Institute and colleagues from the UK, Cameroon, Nigeria and Chad conducted the largest molecular epidemiological study of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in a sub-Saharan African country to understand the incidence and diversity of the disease throughout Cameroon. Their findings are published in Scientific Reports.
They collected 499 samples from 380 cattle with and without bTB-like lesions at abattoirs in four different cities across Cameroon. Mycobacterium bovis evolves slowly by losing genetic material, producing a highly clonal population. By exploiting this aspect, the scientists were able to use methodology previously developed for human tuberculosis epidemiology to infer how and to what extent the pathogen was transmitted.
They discovered that bTB is rather dynamic in Cameroon, but region specific. The disease is characterised by limited evidence of transmission but high prevalence of unique genotype in the Adamawa region which is a product of constant additions from the Great Sahel transhumance movement. On the other hand, the North West region is characterised by high transmission and a local endemic expansion.
The researchers say that their study demonstrates the utility of granular molecular and spatial data in understanding the epidemiology of bTB in resource-limited settings. “This information is now more than ever critical for developing bovine tuberculosis control strategies such as disease free zoning and targeted animal movement restrictions in Africa as an alternative to the cost intensive “test and slaughter” with compensation that is currently practiced in high income settings. The reporting of 21 novel spoligotypes in this study indicates the overall dynamic state of bTB epidemiology in Cameroon and the need for a surveillance/control system,” they conclude.
Article: Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Cameroon by N. F. Egbe, A. Muwonge, L. Ndip, R. F. Kelly, M. Sander, V. Tanya, V. Ngu Ngwa, I. G. Handel, A. Novak, R. Ngandalo, S. Mazeri, K. L. Morgan, A. Asuquo and B. M. de C. Bronsvoort, published in Scientific Reports (2017) 7, article number: 4652, doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-04230-6
[SOURCE: The Roslin Institute]
Researchers at the University of California, Davis’ Center for Animal Disease Modeling and Surveillance (CADMS) and FAO examined the pig trade structure of four pig-rearing regions of Georgia, a country with predominant backyard production systems, whose pig production was recently devastated as a consequence of African swine fever (ASF) epidemics. Their findings are reported in PLoS ONE.
Endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, ASF is re-emerging in new areas and is a major threat to pork production worldwide, both through direct losses and the effects of culling, trade sanctions and export restrictions imposed by countries to stop its spread. Georgia first reported ASF in 2007; from there the disease spread to the Caucasus region, Russian Federation and Eastern Europe, where it is still actively spreading today.
Esther Kukielka, graduate student at CADMS, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, and first author of the study said that mathematical modelling and social-network analysis could shed light on how the virus might move through pig populations in Georgia and other countries where backyard pigs are predominant. These farmers typically raise a few animals for their own consumption and the economic impact for them is huge.
“We’re still investigating how African swine fever is moving in these regions, but pig trade and pig markets, in combination with wild boar movements, seem to play an important role,” said Kukielka.
“The disease is likely also spreading through the trade of contaminated pork products and the use of uncooked pork leftovers to feed pigs,” she said. “Results of our study can help to identify high-risk villages where target education and outreach activities should be conducted, mainly for pig producers and middlemen. We hope it will also help to inform the design of more cost-effective surveillance, prevention and control programmes.”
Kukielka said that preventive and control measures could include improving management, biosecurity and husbandry practices, conducting community workshops, providing better access to veterinarians, or encouraging governments to mitigate farmers’ losses by compensation or replacement of the dead or slaughtered pigs.
Article: Modeling the live-pig trade network in Georgia: Implications for disease prevention and control by Esther Andrea Kukielka, Beatriz Martínez-López and Daniel Beltrán-Alcrudo, published in PLoS ONE (2017) 12(6): e0178904, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178904
[SOURCE: University of California, Davis]