The study, published on 20 September in Science assessed the development of drug-resistant pathogens in developing countries. It found hot spots of multidrug resistance in animals in parts of China and India, as well as rapidly emerging ones in Kenya and Brazil.
Ramanan Laxminarayan, study co-author and founder-director of the Centre for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy, Washington, said “Immediate actions are required in China and India to mitigate the impact of AMR on both their own animals and citizens, and as part of the wider global community.”
To map resistance trends in food animals across LMICs, researchers working on the study developed a geospatial model using data from the 2008-2018 point-prevalence survey that gave a global snapshot of rates of antibiotic resistance in animals and food products.
“We hope to draw attention to the fact that resistance is not just a problem for humans but also a problem for sick animals,” Laxminarayan said. “The study provides policymakers and scientists with a comprehensive mapping of AMR in animals across LMICs for the first time.”
Over the past 20 years, meat consumption has plateaued in higher income countries but grown by 68 per cent, 64 per cent, and 40 per cent in Asia, Africa and South America, respectively, the report states. Asia is home to 56 per cent of the world’s pig population and 54 per cent of the world’s chickens.
The research team has created an open-access web platform resistancebank.org to share their findings and gather additional data on resistance in animals. For example, veterinarians and state-authorities can upload data on resistance in their region to the platform and share it with other people who are interested.
Van Boeckel, T.P.; Pires, J.; Silvester, R.; Cheng Zhao; Song, J.; Criscuolo, N. G.; Gilbert, M.; Bonhoeffer, S.; Laxminarayan, R. 2019. Global trends in antimicrobial resistance in animals in low- and middle-income countries. Science 20 Sep 2019, Vol. 365, Issue 6459, eaaw1944; DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw1944
The first outbreak of African swine fever in China has been confirmed on 3 Aug 2018 by Dr. Zhang Zhongqui, Director General, China Animal Disease Control Centre, Veterinary Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China. China has the largest pig population in the world (433 million) and represents over half of the global pig herd. The outbreak occurred in a backyard farm in Shenbei New District, Shenyang City, Liaoning Province. The outbreak began on 1 August. Sequencing analysis showed that the 417 bp of B646L/p72 gene of the ASFV in China shared 100% identity with the current prevalent Georgian strain（ Georgia 2007) which is currently spreading in Russia and Eastern Europe.
(July 2018) PEDV has rapidly spilled over into feral swine populations
(08/06/2018) Study suggests that attempts to eliminate tuberculosis from humans will require simultaneous consideration of bTB control in cattle population in countries such as India.
Comparison of Heterosubtypic Protection in Ferrets and Pigs Induced by a Single-Cycle Influenza Vaccine
(04/06/2018) Universal flu vaccine candidate induces different immune responses in pigs compared to ferrets – pigs may be a better model for human disease
(01/06/2018) Orf disease is endemic in small ruminants in Asia, Africa, and some other parts of the world. Caused by orf virus, it is highly contagious in small ruminants.
(01/06/2018) A review of viral vectored vaccines, particularly using vectors such as adenovirus, herpesvirus and poxviruses, which are used widely in veterinary medicine, where this technology has been adopted much more quickly than in human medicine.
(07/06/2018) The true economic and public health impact of these diseases are likely to be underestimated, mainly due to under-reporting or lack of awareness of them.
(02/02/2018) Using nucleotide sequencing technologies, the rapid evolution of the viral genome can be followed, allowing tracing of virus transmission pathways within an outbreak